Howe D, Dixit NN, Saul KR, Fisher MB. A Direct Comparison of Node and Element-Based Finite Element Modeling Approaches to Study Tissue Growth. J Biomech Eng. 2022 Jan 1;144(1). doi: 10.1115/1.4051661. PubMed PMID: 34227653; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC8420794. (PDF)
McCain EM, Libera TL, Berno ME, Sawicki GS, Saul KR, Lewek MD. Isolating the energetic and mechanical consequences of imposed reductions in ankle and knee flexion during gait. J Neuroeng Rehabil. 2021 Feb 1;18(1):21. doi: 10.1186/s12984-021-00812-8. PubMed PMID: 33526053; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC7852087. (PDF)

Dixit NN, McCormick CM, Warren E, Cole JH, Saul KR. Preganglionic and Postganglionic Brachial Plexus Birth Injury Effects on Shoulder Muscle GrowthJ Hand Surg Am2021;doi: 10.1016/j.jhsa.2020.07.017. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 32919794; NIHMSID:NIHMS1617913. (PDF)

McCain E, Berno M, Libera T, Lewek M, Sawicki G, Saul K. Reduced joint motion supersedes asymmetry in explaining increased metabolic demand during walking with mechanical restriction. Journal of Biomechanics. 2021 September; 126:110621-. doi: 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2021.110621. (PDF)

Wu W, Saul K, Huang H. Using Reinforcement Learning to Estimate Human Joint Moments From Electromyography or Joint Kinematics: An Alternative Solution to Musculoskeletal-Based Biomechanics. Journal of Biomechanical Engineering. 2021 April; 143(4):-. doi: 10.1115/1.4049333. (PDF)

Doshi RM, Reid MY, Dixit NN, Fawcett EB, Cole JH, Saul KR. Location of brachial plexus birth injury affects functional outcomes in a rat model. J Orthop Res. 2021 Aug 25;. doi: 10.1002/jor.25173. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 34432311; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC8873217. (PDF)

Dixit NN, McCormick CM, Cole JH, Saul KR. Influence of Brachial Plexus Birth Injury Location on Glenohumeral Joint Morphology. J Hand Surg Am. 2021 Jun;46(6):512.e1-512.e9. doi: 10.1016/j.jhsa.2020.10.019. Epub 2020 Dec 25. PubMed PMID: 33358583; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC8180483. (PDF)

McFarland DC, Brynildsen AG, Saul KR. Sensitivity of Neuromechanical Predictions to Choice of Glenohumeral Stability Modeling ApproachJ Appl Biomech2020 May 5;:1-10doi: 10.1123/jab.2019-0088. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 32369767. (PDF)

Fawcett E, McCormick C, Murray A, Crouch D, Saul K, Cole J. Characterizing Trabecular Bone Properties near the Glenohumeral Joint Following Brachial Plexus Birth Injury[preprint]. 2020 February; doi: 10.1101/2020.02.26.967224. (PDF)

Tushak S, Tamburro M, Fawcett E, Merritt LE L, Saul K, Cole J. Forelimb unloading impairs glenohumeral muscle development in growing rats[preprint]. 2020 February; doi: 10.1101/2020.02.26.967273. (PDF)

Nelson AJ, Hall PT, Saul KR, Crouch DL. Effect of Mechanically Passive, Wearable Shoulder Exoskeletons on Muscle Output During Dynamic Upper Extremity Movements: A Computational Simulation StudyJ Appl Biomech2020 Jan 22;:1-9doi: 10.1123/jab.2018-0369. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 31968306. (PDF)

Dixit NN, McFarland DC, Fisher MB, Cole JH, Saul KR. Integrated iterative musculoskeletal modeling predicts bone morphology following brachial plexus birth injury (BPBI). J Biomech. 2020 Apr 16;103:109658. doi: 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2020.109658. Epub 2020 Jan 24. PubMed PMID: 32089271; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC7141945. (PDF)

McCain EM, Dick TJM, Giest TN, Nuckols RW, Lewek MD, Saul KR, Sawicki GS. Mechanics and energetics of post-stroke walking aided by a powered ankle exoskeleton with speed-adaptive myoelectric controlJ Neuroeng Rehabil2019 May 15;16(1):57doi: 10.1186/s12984-019-0523-y. PubMed PMID: 31092269; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6521500. (PDF)

Dixit NN, McFarland DC, Saul KR. Computational analysis of glenohumeral joint growth and morphology following a brachial plexus birth injuryJ Biomech2019 Mar 27;86:48-54doi: 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2019.01.040. Epub 2019 Feb 2. PubMed PMID: 30797561; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6771017. (PDF)

McFarland DC, McCain EM, Poppo MN, Saul K. Spatial Dependency of Glenohumeral Joint Stability during Dynamic Unimanual and Bimanual Pushing and PullingJ Biomech Eng2019 Mar 5;doi: 10.1115/1.4043035. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 30835272. (PDF)

Vidt ME, Santago AC, Marsh AP, Hegedus EJ, Tuohy CJ, Poehling GG, Freehill MT, Miller ME, Saul KR. Modeling a rotator cuff tear: Individualized shoulder muscle forces influence glenohumeral joint contact force predictionsClinical Biomechanics. 2018; 60: 20-29. (PDF)

McFarland DC, Poppo MN, McCain EM, Saul KR. Spatial dependency of shoulder muscle demand during dynamic unimanual and bimanual pushing and pullingApplied Ergonomics. 2018; 73: 199-205. (PDF)

Hennen K, Crouch DL, Saul KR. Relationship between glenoid deformity and gait characteristics in a rat model of neonatal brachial plexus injury. Journal of Orthopaedic Research 2018; 36: 1991-1997. (PDF)

Santago A, Plate J, Saul K. Age-Related Changes to the Bony Structure and Musculature of the Shoulder in a Nonhuman Primate Model. In: Conn’s Handbook of Models for Human Aging [Internet] Elsevier; 2018. 155-166p. Available from: (PDF)

Santago AC, Vidt ME, Tuohy CJ, Poehling GG, Freehill MT, Saul KR. Shoulder Strength Requirements for Upper Limb Functional Tasks: Do Age and Rotator Cuff Tear Status Matter? Journal of Applied Biomechanics. 2017; 33:446-452. (PDF)
Li X, Santago AC, Vidt ME, Saul KR. Analysis of effects of loading and postural demands on upper limb reaching in older adults using statistical parametric mappingJ Biomechanics 2016. 49:2806-2816. PMID: 27435566. (PDF)

Caruthers EJ, Thompson JA, Chaudhari AMW, Schmitt LC, Best TM, Saul KR, Siston RA. Muscle forces and their contributions to vertical and horizontal acceleration of the center of mass during sit-to-stand transfer in young, healthy adultsJournal of Applied Biomechanics. 2016. 32:487-503. (PDF)

Crouch DL, Santago AC II, Plate JF, Li Z, Saul KR. Relationship Between Maximum Isometric Joint Moment and Functional Task Performance in Patients with Brachial Plexus Injury: A pilot study. Gait and Posture. 2016. 44:238-44. (PDF)

Vidt ME, Santago AC, Tuohy CJ, Poehling GG, Freehill MT, Kraft RA, Marsh AP, Hegedus EJ, Miller ME, Saul KR. Assessments of fatty infiltration and muscle atrophy from a single magnetic resonance image slice are not predictive of 3-dimensional measurementsArthroscopy. 2016. 32: 128-39. PMID: 26391648 (PDF)(Editorial commentary)

Vidt M, Santago A, Marsh A, Hegedus E, Tuohy C, Poehling G, Freehill M, Miller M, Saul K. The effects of a rotator cuff tear on activities of daily living in older adults: A kinematic analysis. Journal of Biomechanics. 2016 February; 49(4):611-617. doi: 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2016.01.029. (PDF)

Crouch DL, Hutchinson I, Plate JF, Gong H, Cao G, Li Z, Saul KR. Biomechanical basis of shoulder osseous deformity and contracture in a rat model of brachial plexus birth palsy. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2015. 97: 1264-1271. (PDF)

Vidt ME, Santago AC, Hegedus EJ, Marsh AP, Tuohy CJ, Poehling GG, Freehill MT, Miller ME, Saul KR. Can self-report instruments of shoulder function capture functional differences in older adults with and without a rotator cuff tear. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology2015;July 9. pii:S1050-6411(15)000145-5. doi:10.1016/j.jelekin.2015.06.009 (PDF)

Saul KR, Vidt ME, Gold GE, Murray WM. Upper limb strength and muscle volume in healthy middle aged adults. Journal of Applied Biomechanics. 2015. 31: 484-91. PMID: 26155870 (PDF)

Santago AC, Plate JF, Shively CA, Register TC, Smith TL, Saul KR. Age-related structural changes to upper extremity muscle tissue in a non-human primate model. Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery. 2015. 24:1660-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jse.2015.03.025. PMID: 25963066. (PDF)

Cheng W, Crouch DL, Cornwall R, Li Z, Saul KR. Contributions of muscle imbalance and impaired growth to postural and osseous shoulder deformity following brachial plexus birth palsy: a computational simulation analysisJournal of Hand Surgery. 2015; 40: 1170-6. PMID: 24342260 (PDF)

Edmonds EW, Santago AC, Saul KR. Functional loss with displacement of medial epicondyle humerus fractures: a computer simulation study. Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics. 35: 666-71. PMID: 25494027 (PDF)

Santago AC, Vidt ME, Tuohy CJ, Poehling GG, Freehill MT, Kraft RA, Jordan JH, Saul KR. Quantitative analysis of three-dimensional distribution and clustering of intramuscular fat in muscles of the rotator cuff. Annals of Biomedical Engineering .2015. 44: 2158-67. (PDF)

Crouch DL, Plate JF, Li Zhongyu, Saul KR. Computational sensitivity analysis to identify muscles that can mechanical contribute to shoulder deformity following brachial plexus birth palsyJournal of Hand Surgery 2014; 39(2):303-311. (PDF)

Saul KR, Hu X, Goehler CM, Daly M, Vidt ME, Velisar A, Murray WM. Benchmarking of dynamic simulation predictions in two software platforms using an upper limb musculoskeletal model. Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering. 2014; 18:1445-58. PMID:24995410. (PDF)

De Sapio V, Earl D, Green R, Saul K. Human Factors Simulation Using Demographically Tuned Biomechanical Models. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting. 2014 October; 58(1):944-948. doi: 10.1177/1541931214581198. (PDF)


Plate JF, Bates CM, Mannava S, Smith TL, Jorgenson MJ, Register TC, Stehle JR, High KP, Shiveley CA, Kaplan JR, Saul KR, Tuohy CJ. Age-related degenerative functional, radiographic, and histological changes of the shoulder in non-human primates. Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery 2013; 22(8):1019-29. PMID: 23352182. (PDF)

Mannava S, Plate JF, Tuohy CJ, Seyler TM, Whitlock PW, Curl WW, Smith TL, Saul KR. The science of rotator cuff repairs: translating animals models to clinical recommendations using simulation analysis. Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy 2013; 21(7): 1610-9. PMID: 22842677. (PDF)

Crouch DL, Plate JF, Li Zhongyu, Saul KR. Biomechanical contributions of posterior deltoid and teres minor in the context of axillary nerve injury: a computational study. Journal of Hand Surgery. 2013; 38(2): 241-249. PMID: 23294649. (PDF)

Plate JF, Wiggins WF, Haubruck P, Scott AT, Smith TL, Saul KR, Mannava S. Normal aging alters in vivo passive biomechanical properties of the rat gastrocnemius-achilles muscle-tendon unitJournal of Biomechanics. 2013; 46:450-5. PMID: 23245562. (PDF)

Daly M, Vidt ME, Eggebeen JD, Miller ME, Simpson WG, Marsh AP, Saul KR. Upper Extremity Muscle Volumes and Functional Strength Following Upper Limb Resistance Training in Older Adults. Journal of Aging and Physical Activity 2013; 21: 186-207. PMID:23531507. (PDF)

Haubruck P, Mannava S, Plate JF, Callahan MF, Wiggins WF, Schmidmaier G, Tuohy CJ, Saul KR, Smith TL. Botulinum Neurotoxin A injections influence stretching of the gastrocnemius muscle-tendon unit in an animal model.Toxins 2012;4: 605-619. PMID: 23012650. (PDF)

Vidt ME, Daly M, Miller ME, Davis CC, Marsh AP, Saul KR. Characterizing upper limb muscle volume and strength in older adults: A comparison with young adults. Journal of Biomechanics 2012;45: 334-341. PMID: 22047782. (PDF)

Saul K, Goehler C, Daly M, Vidt M, Velisar A, Murray W. Dynamic Simulation of Upper Limb Movement in Two Software Platforms. ASME 2012 Summer Bioengineering Conference, Parts A and B. ASME 2012 Summer Bioengineering Conference; Jun. 20 – 23, 2012; Fajardo, Puerto Rico, USA. American Society of Mechanical Engineers; c2012. (PDF)

Saul K, Delp S, Gold G, Murray W. Upper Limb Muscle Volumes in Adults. In: Preedy V, editor. Handbook of Anthropometry [Internet] New York, NY: Springer New York; 2012. Chapter Chapter 19; 355-373p. Available from: (PDF)


Crouch DL, Li Z, Barnwell JC, Plate JF, Daly M, Saul KR. Computer simulation of nerve transfer strategies for restoring shoulder function after adult C5 and C6 root avulsion injuries. J Hand Surg 2011; 36: 1644-51. PMID:21903345. (PDF)

Saul KR, Hayon S, Smith TL, Tuohy CJ, Mannava S.  Postural dependence of passive tendon in the supraspinatus following rotator cuff repair: a simulation analysis.  Clinical Biomechanics 2011; 26:804-810. PMID:21596463 (PDF)

Mannava S, Wiggins WF, Saul KR, Stitzel JD, Smith BP, Koman LA, Smith TL, Tuohy CJ.  Contributions of neural tone to in vivo passive muscle-tendon unit biomechanical properties in a rat rotator cuff animal model.  Annals of Biomedical Engineering 2011;39: 1914-24. PMID:21445691.(PDF)

Mogk JP, Johanson ME, Hentz VR, Saul KR, Murray WM.  A simulation analysis of the combined effects of muscle strength and surgical tensioning on lateral pinch force following brachioradialis to flexor pollicis longus transfer.  Journal of Biomechanics 2011; 44: 669-75. PMID:21092963. (PDF)

Taylor RE, Zheng C, Jackson RP, Doll JC, Chen JC, Holzbaur KRSaul, Besier T, Kuhl E. The phenomenon of twisted growth: Humeral torsion in dominant arms of high performance tennis players.  Computer methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering 2009; 12(1):83-93. PMID:18654877 (PDF)
Holzbaur KRSaul, Murray WM, Gold GE, Delp SL.  Upper limb muscle volumes in adult subjectsJournal of Biomechanics 2007; 40(11):2442-9. PMID:17241636 (PDF)

Holzbaur KRSaul, Delp SL, Gold GE, Murray MW.  Moment-generating capacity of upper limb muscles in healthy adult subjects. Journal of Biomechanics 2007; 40: 742-749. PMID:17250841 (PDF)

De Sapio V, Holzbaur K, Khatib O. The control of kinematically constrained shoulder complexes: physiological and humanoid examples. Proceedings 2006 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, 2006. ICRA 2006.. 2006 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, 2006. ICRA 2006.; May 15-19, 2006; Orlando, FL, USA. IEEE; c2006. (PDF)
Holzbaur KRSaul, Murray WM, Delp SL. A model of the upper extremity for simulating musculoskeletal surgery and analyzing neuromuscular control.  Annals of Biomedical Engineering 2005; 33: 829-840. PMID:16078622 (PDF)
Saul KR, Murray WM, Hentz VR, Delp SL. Biomechanics of the Steindler flexorplasty surgery: A computer simulation study.  Journal of Hand Surgery 2003; 28A: 979-986. PMID:14642514 (PDF)